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Edoardo Bardi graduated in October 2015 (110/110 cum laude) by the University of Milan, with a thesis entitled “Parasitological survey on captive reptiles (Reptilia: Squamata)”. He has always been focused on non conventional animal medicine, and during his academic years he has attended clinics specialized in exotic animals both in Italy and Germany. After graduation he has worked as keeper and veterinarian by the Pombia Safari Park (NO), as exotic animal practitioner by several clinics in Milan and as volunteer veterinarian by the LIPU wildlife rescue centre in Magenta (MI). He is author an co-author of 3 scientific works that were presented at the 3rd International Conference on Avian, heRpetological and Exotic mammal medicine (ICARE, March 2017, Venice, Italy). In May 2017 he spent a month in India by the Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, working as a volunteer veterinarian and carrying out research projects regarding crocodiles and endangered turtle species parasitology and hematology. In October 2017 he obtained the ESVPS international qualification of General Practitioner in Exotic Animal Practice (GPCert: ExAP).







Stefano Romussi graduated in Veterinary Medicine in 1990 (110/110 cum laude). Associate professor of veterinary surgery at the Department of Veterinary Medicine – University of Milan since 2001, his main fields of interest are soft tissue surgery, expecially related to ENT diseases in dogs and cats, and endoscopy.


Title: Standardization of minimally invasive surgical procedures in wild and captive reptiles.

North american pond slider (Trachemys scripta spp.) is one of the most common species of pet turtles in Italy, but it is also an important example of invasive alien species: since many owners used to abandon them in the wild when they got too big to be kept inside the house, in the last three decades these animals successfully managed to breed and prosper in our enviroment, to the detriment of the more delicate european pond turtle (Emys orbicularis). For this reason, in October 2014 the European Union has passed a Regulation (Reg. EU 1143/2014 - on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species), integrated in July 2016 (Reg. EU 1141/2016 - adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Reg. EU 1143/2014) that definitively makes their commerce, breeding and releasing illegal. This project aims to provide a safe, practical and cheap mean of population control, while determing the feasibility of minimally invasive gonadectomy and standardizing a safe and effective analgesic and peri-operative management in this species. In fact, in recent years only a handful of papers regarding this kind of procedures have been published, all of them describing minimally-invasive surgery applied only on mature, fully grown animals, or on immature gigantic species (such as Galapagos tortoise Chelonoidis niger); furthermore, most of these publications confined themself to merely describing the surgical technique, partially or totally overlooking anaesthetic and analgesic considerations. In this project, we will perform endoscopic-assisted ovariectomy/ovariohysterectomy on mature females, totally endoscopic orchiectomy on males and totally endoscopic ovariectomy on immature females, while comparing the effects of two different analgesic protocols: using a behavioural ethogram, morphine will be used as gold standard to assess post-surgical analgesic efficacy of COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug robenacoxib. Regarding post-surgical pain response and rehabilitation, intrasurgical hemostatic devices (vascular clips vs radiofrequency) and perioperative management (outdoor vs indoor housing) will be compared as well.








Fig. 1 – Totally endoscopic ovariectomy in immature female C. niger








Fig. 2 – Endoscopic-assisted ovariectomy in mature female T. scripta