Giraldi / Scarpa

Giraldi

MARCO GIRALDI
I am a graduated in Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pisa. I have defended my graduation thesis titled “Copper-associated hepatopathy: diagnosis and clinical correlations” in July 2012. From December 2012 to March 2013 I spent a visiting period at the Veterinary Cytopathology and Hematology Service of the Hospital Clinic Veterinari at the University of Barcelona (UAB).
Since April 2013 I have joined a veterinary team in a private practice in Tuscany. My daily job activity were canine and feline clinical consultations, focused on internal medicine. I was also the vet in charge for management of laboratory equipment and for cytopathological and haematological diagnosis.


Scarpa

PAOLA SCARPA
Associate Professor in Veterinary Medical Pathology at the Department of Veterinary Sciences and Public Health of the University of Milan.
Graduated at the University of Milan, she obtained a PhD in Large Animal Internal Medicine, a post Doc in Veterinary Sciences and Applied Biology and won a grant of the Specialization School of Small Animals Diseases.
Encharged Professor in “Applied Physiology in Small Animal” in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Padua State University from 1990 to 2000, she became researcher in 2001 in Milan. She is actually involved in clinical practice (internal medicine) in the small animal teaching hospital.
Paola Scarpa is the current vice president of the Italian Society of Veterinary Internal Medicine (SIMIV) and a member of the European Society of Veterinary Nephrology and Urology (ESVNU). She was also president of the Italian Society of Veterinary Nephrology and Urology from 2008 to 2011. The research interests are focused on Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, with particular skills in nephrology and urology in dogs and cats.


Renal proteinuria in cats and dogs affected with spontaneous CKD: news and perspectives

CKD is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cats and it's characterized by irreversible loss of renal function and and/or structure.
Despite an adequate standard therapy, CKD is ultimately progressive with peculiar pathologic alterations, such as hypertension and proteinuria.

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These findings are recognized as diagnostic as well as causal factors in worsening and perpetuating kidney damage. The exact mechanism of the CKD-associated hypertension is not known, but the activation of the renin-angiotensin system may be involved. The activation of this system could also ultimately contribute to the intraglomerular hypertension and to worsen proteinuria.
The method to quantify proteinuria is the evaluation of urinary proteins and creatinine (UPC) ratio. To the best of our knowledge none information is available about analytical limitation and variability of this diagnostic procedure. Moreover, a potential high analytical variability of UPC could cause an erroneous staging of the patient and consequently affect clinical decision making. Hence, a preliminary objective is to characterize analytical imprecision and accuracy of proteinuria and biomarkers in client owned cat that will be presented for clinical examination in our clinic.

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Given the progressive nature of CKD and the fact that it becomes clinically and biochemically evident when 75% of the kidney is compromised, finding a biomarker for CKD diagnosis would be useful in order to start an adequate therapy and to predict a worsening in animals. Previous studies in our department highlighted good results of serum big endothelin-1 and homocysteine in dogs with CKD. Furthermore, the pattern of urinary protein as visualized by urine electrophoresis can be used to help determine whether glomerular and/or tubular damage in contributing to proteinuria.
Our hypothesis is that serum biomarkers increase and urinary protein patterns change in cats with CKD, as happen in human and dogs. Hence, the aim is to determine concentration of serum levels of big endothelin-1 and homocysteine and to determine the urinary protein pattern by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate – Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in cats staged according to International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) classification, in order to gain information about their serum levels and their clinical utility. Such patients will be monitored until the development of azotemia, following and treating them according to international guidelines. Our further aim is to determine through prospective sequential sampling the concentration of the previous biomarkers, in order to assess if their increasing can predict the development of CKD, proteinuria or hypertension, or if their assessment can be useful in improvement the therapeutical management of small animals with CKD with standard therapy.